When first introduced Pomeranians were considerably larger than the present-day specimens and weighed about 20 pounds. They were typical members of the Spitz or Arctic family of dogs, and were mainly white in color.
Breeders concentrated on producing smaller dogs and some of the tiny ones were rather delicate. These very small ones were mostly incapable of breeding, and the present day average is 4 to 5 pounds.
Unlike most other breeds, Pomeranian dogs should be smaller than the bitches. It is generally accepted that additional size is required in the bitch if the breed is to make progress. Most present-day judges form their opinion on the dog’s value from a breeding angle, and those deemed incapable of reproducing are not encouraged.
Years ago, Pomeranians of practically all colors were exhibited – blacks, blues, creams, chocolates, wolf sables, orange, whites, and beavers, even parti-colors were not uncommon. Today practically the only color seen is orange. This applies to practically all countries.
Pomeranians are very sharp little house dogs and resent the presence of strangers more than most breeds. Many consider them to be yappers, but this is generally due to the fault of their owners, who permit them to do as they please around the home.
Poms, like any other breed of dog, can be spoiled very easily or trained to be well behaved just as easily. Although very heavily coated, and mostly leading an indoor life, they live to a ripe old age, are most affectionate, and make very attractive house pets.
This is one of the few breeds in which the hair is groomed against the grain of the hair, and require plenty of grooming to look just right. The hair is brushed towards the head at all times. The correct Pomeranian coat is a “stand off” one, namely, the outer coat must stand away from the body.
This coat is long, harsh to the touch, and is set off by a heavy breeching on the hindquarters and a long “plume” on the tail, which spreads fanwise over the back. Hair on the face and legs (to the first joint) is short and the body is covered by a very profuse, longish undercoat which assists the outer coat to stand well away from the body.
The body coat is rarely, if ever, combed as this would remove the heavy undercoat, so characteristic of the breed. Color is most important, too. Orange-colored Pomeranians should be a clear orange throughout, free from dark shadings, with breeching almost as rich in color as the body coat.
Orange sables are dogs with a base color of orange, with the tips of the outer coat black. These are most attractive, but the shadings should be uniform throughout and not in patches.
In all colors seen today, nose and eye rims should be black. Coat and color are extremely important in the breed, and in the show standard, no less than fifty percent, of the points are allotted for these points.
The Pomeranian is a short, cobby dog, standing on fine, straight legs. His tail should be set on high and carried straight up the back, and the plume on a good one usually just about touches the head when he is standing at attention.
The head is short and foxy in appearance; the skull is about twice the length of the very sharp muzzle, and the eyes dark and full of brightness. The ears are pricked, set high on the skull, and the expression should denote brightness and intelligence at all times.
The action is another very characteristic feature of the breed. The rather high withers give the dog a perky, bouncing action which should suggest vivacity, and the feet should turn neither inwards nor outwards.